上海市15岁及以上居民膳食摄入量分析

罗宝章 , 吴春峰 , 朱珍妮 , 宓铭 , 虞慧婷 , 蔡华 , 刘弘

引用本文: 罗宝章, 吴春峰, 朱珍妮, 宓铭, 虞慧婷, 蔡华, 刘弘. 上海市15岁及以上居民膳食摄入量分析[J]. 上海预防医学, 2022, 34(5): 417-424. doi: 10.19428/j.cnki.sjpm.2022.22001 shu
Citation: LUO Baozhang, WU Chunfeng, ZHU Zhenni, MI Ming, YU Huiting, CAI Hua, LIU Hong . Analysis of dietary intake in the residents aged 15 years and above in Shanghai[J]. Shanghai Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2022, 34(5): 417-424. doi: 10.19428/j.cnki.sjpm.2022.22001 shu

上海市15岁及以上居民膳食摄入量分析

    作者简介: 罗宝章,男,硕士,副主任医师;研究方向:食品安全风险监测与评估;E-mail:luobaozhang@scdc.sh.cn
    通讯作者: 刘弘, liuhong@scdc.sh.cn
  • 基金项目: 上海市公共卫生体系建设三年行动计划优秀人才培养计划(GWV-10.2-YQ21)

摘要 : 目的提供上海市15岁及以上居民各种食物类别每日膳食摄入量以及不同区域、季节、性别、年龄分层的每日膳食摄入量等基础数据。方法采用多阶段分层比例概率抽样方法(PPS)抽取调查样本,使用食物频率表(FFQ)对调查对象2012—2013年春夏秋冬4个季节的食物摄入量进行调查。对样本的加权统计分析综合考虑了抽样设计权重、分层调整权重及无应答调整权重。结果上海市15岁及以上居民每日膳食总摄入量(不含饮用水)为1 174.71 g,其中每日膳食摄入量最高的3种食物类别为谷类(252.31 g)、蔬菜类(205.36 g)和水果类(141.00 g)。城市中心区、城郊接合区、远郊地区居民每日膳食总摄入量分别为1 209.15、 1 172.27、948.50 g,远郊地区每日膳食总摄入量明显低于其他区域(F=74.12,P<0.001)。居民不同季节每日膳食总摄入量分别为春1 232.47 g、夏1 166.80 g、秋1 241.15 g、冬1 088.83 g,冬季每日膳食总摄入量低于其他季节(F=15.96,P<0.001),水果类和饮料类具有明显季节性。不同性别居民每日膳食总摄入量分别为男性1 234.03 g、女性1 112.32 g,男性每日膳食总摄入量高于女性 (F=78.59,P<0.001)。居民不同年龄组每日膳食总摄入量分别为15~44岁1 218.64 g、45~59岁1 141.27 g、≥60岁1 064.54 g,居民每日膳食总摄入量随着年龄增大呈现递减趋势(F=20.28,P<0.001)。结论上海市15岁及以上居民谷类、畜禽肉、水产类、蛋类、食用油的每日摄入量相对均衡,但是蔬菜类、水果类、乳类的每日摄入量相对不足。居民不同食物种类的每日摄入量具有较为明显的城乡、季节和年龄性别特征。

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  • 地区 Region性别 Gender15~44岁 15‒44 years45~59岁 45‒59 years≥60岁 60 years and above合计 Total
    城市中心区Urban男性 Male127(7.44)137(8.03)152(8.91)416(24.38)
    女性 Female129(7.56)148(8.68)151(8.85)428(25.09)
    小计 Subtotal256(15.01)285(16.71)303(17.76)844(49.47)
    城郊接合区Suburban男性 Male65(3.81)68(3.99)71(4.16)204(11.96)
    女性 Female65(3.81)68(3.99)71(4.16)204(11.96)
    小计 Subtotal130(7.62)136(7.97)142(8.32)408(23.92)
    远郊地区Rural男性 Male70(4.10)72(4.22)87(5.10)229(13.42)
    女性 Female63(3.69)80(4.69)82(4.81)225(13.19)
    小计 Subtotal133(7.80)152(8.91)169(9.91)454(26.61)

    表 1  上海市15岁及以上居民膳食调查的地区、性别、年龄人群结构

    Table 1.  Population structure of surveyed residents aged 15 and above in Shanghai

    下载: 导出CSV
    地区 Region性别 Gender15~44岁 15‒44 years45~59岁 45‒59 years≥60岁 60 years and above合计 Total
    合计Total男性 Male262(15.36)277(16.24)310(18.17)849(49.77)
    女性 Female257(15.06)296(17.35)304(17.82)857(50.23)
    小计 Subtotal519(30.42)573(33.59)614(35.99)1 706(100.00)
    【注】括号外为人数,括号内为构成比/%。[Note]Outside the brackets is the number of cases, and inside the brackets is the constituent ratio/%.

    表 1  (续)

    Table 1.  (continued)

    下载: 导出CSV
    食物类别 Food Categoryx¯±s95%CIP95最大值 Max
    谷类 Cereal252.31±103.62247.39~257.23451.75775.89
    焙烤类 Bakery27.73±24.5026.57~28.9077.39203.68
    豆类 Beans68.31±58.9765.51~71.11165.75629.38
    坚果籽类 Nuts and seeds7.03±9.196.59~7.4625.40111.70
    肉类 Meats76.48±48.3474.18~78.77170.99356.61
    水产类 Aquatic products64.05±45.9961.87~66.24145.99452.68
    蛋类 Eggs38.13±17.0637.32~38.9467.24150.35
    乳类 Dairy111.05±84.47107.04~115.06259.70781.25
    蔬菜类 Vegetables205.36±108.08200.22~210.49381.071 523.36
    食用菌类 Mushrooms13.62±12.0313.05~14.1936.19160.00
    水果类 Fruits141.00±89.69136.74~145.26316.32742.30
    饮料类 Drinks75.87±105.1470.87~80.86305.54714.87
    酒类 Alcohol40.99±144.4734.13~47.85236.693741.00
    茶叶类 Tea3.51±12.622.91~4.1112.00376.82
    藻类 Algae3.32±4.683.10~3.5411.0651.32
    巧克力类 Chocolate1.70±3.621.53~1.887.6242.23
    调味品 Condiment44.25±17.8743.40~45.0973.73142.50
    合计 Total1 174.71±397.391 155.83~1 193.581 835.314 919.35

    表 2  上海市15岁及以上居民不同食物大类的每日膳食摄入量

    Table 2.  Daily dietary intake of different food groups among residents aged 15 and above in Shanghai

    下载: 导出CSV
    食物类别 Categoryx¯±s95%CIP95最大值 Max子类占比/% Proportion/%
    谷类 Cereal
    大米及制品 Rice and products196.17±92.52191.78~200.57362.50675.0077.75
    小麦面粉及制品 Wheat flour and products40.50±32.4038.96~42.04100.00234.1616.05
    油炸面食 Fried pasta8.38±12.997.76~8.9928.58344.473.32
    其他谷类Other cereals7.26±15.986.50~8.0233.33150.002.88
    焙烤类 Bakery
    面包 Bread17.50±17.9916.65~18.3650.72157.1563.11
    饼干 Biscuit6.75±9.506.30~7.2025.36106.4324.34
    其他焙烤类 Other bakery3.48±5.763.20~3.7514.12150.0012.55
    豆类 Beans
    豆浆 Soy milk37.24±4735.01~39.48116.67585.0054.52

    表 3  上海市15岁及以上居民不同食物子类的每日膳食摄入量

    Table 3.  Daily dietary intake of different food categories of residents aged 15 and above in Shanghai

    下载: 导出CSV
    食物类别 Categoryx¯±s95%CIP95最大值 Max子类占比/% Proportion/%
    豆腐 Tofu13.86±13.7213.21~14.5234.06193.2720.29
    其他豆类 Other legumes17.20±18.9816.30~18.1144.87222.1925.18
    坚果籽类 Nuts and seeds
    花生 Peanut2.93±4.452.72~3.1410.7267.1441.68
    其他坚果籽类 Other nuts and seeds4.10±6.963.77~4.4317.8673.9258.32
    肉类 Meats
    畜肉 Meat56.63±38.9254.78~58.48129.62318.0874.05
    禽肉 Poultry15.99±13.4815.35~16.6344.66176.2920.91
    动物内脏 Animal organs1.75±3.001.61~1.907.1241.262.29
    肉制品 Meat products2.10±3.861.92~2.298.6840.402.75
    水产类 Aquatic products
    淡水鱼 Freshwater fish26.34±21.6325.32~27.3766.58234.6441.12
    海水鱼 Sea fish16.00±21.3114.99~17.0245.29429.7324.98
    甲壳类 Crustaceans17.62±15.2216.90~18.3445.68212.5627.51
    软体动物 Mollusk4.08±6.883.76~4.4116.7687.536.37
    蛋类 Eggs
    鲜蛋 Fresh eggs32.57±14.8831.86~33.2856.25130.3685.42
    蛋制品 Egg products5.56±7.255.22~5.9019.6785.0014.58
    乳类 Dairy
    液体奶 Liquid milk73.82±71.1670.44~77.20205.37537.5066.47
    酸奶 Yogurt31.44±35.8829.74~33.15100.00781.2528.31
    其他乳类 Other dairy5.79±12.835.18~6.4026.37123.225.21
    蔬菜类 Vegetables
    叶类蔬菜 Leafy vegetables47.08±36.1545.36~48.79107.18500.0022.93
    茄果类蔬菜 Nightshade vegetables31.20±22.9430.11~32.2967.16456.4515.19
    瓜类蔬菜 Melon vegetables25.05±19.7324.11~25.9857.00300.0012.20
    鲜豆类蔬菜 Fresh legumes20.52±36.8118.77~22.2750.771429.049.99
    其他类蔬菜 Other vegetables59.95±37.0758.19~61.71122.72300.7929.19
    酱腌制蔬菜类 Pickled vegetables4.07±6.703.75~4.3916.08200.001.98
    食用菌类 Mushrooms
    蘑菇类 Mushrooms9.41±9.448.96~9.8626.01100.0069.09
    非蘑菇类 Non-mushroom4.22±5.493.95~4.4814.5175.9130.98
    水果类 Fruits
    仁果类水果 Pome fruits43.03±39.4941.15~44.90116.68376.0830.52
    瓜类水果 Melons35.36±36.1233.64~37.08101.69300.0025.08
    柑橘类水果 Citrus fruits26.29±24.9725.10~27.4871.45300.0018.65
    热带水果 Tropical fruits15.69±17.8314.85~16.5447.15221.5411.13
    其他类水果 Other fruits18.69±20.5117.71~19.6653.86387.1613.26
    水果蜜饯类 Fruit preserves1.94±6.251.64~2.2410.02121.671.38
    饮料类 Drinks
    碳酸饮料 Carbonated drinks25.71±47.9223.43~27.99121.23437.5033.89
    咖啡 Coffee22.12±46.4319.92~24.33109.77583.9729.16
    鲜榨果蔬汁 Freshly squeezed fruit and vegetable juice12.33±32.4210.79~13.8764.31300.0016.25
    茶饮料 Tea drink7.04±18.366.17~7.9135.73217.919.28
    其他饮料 Other drinks8.66±17.657.82~9.5044.66164.3411.41
    酒类 Alcohol
    以啤酒计 In beer40.99±144.4734.13~47.85236.693741.00100.00
    茶叶类 Tea
    茶叶(干) Tea (dry)3.51±12.622.91~4.1112.00376.82100.00
    藻类 Algae
    海带(湿) Kelp (wet)2.51±4.132.32~2.719.2950.0075.60
    紫菜(干) Seaweed (dried)0.81±1.590.73~0.883.5017.6224.40
    巧克力类 Chocolate
    巧克力 Chocolate1.70±3.621.53~1.887.6242.23100.00
    调味品 Condiment
    食用油 Edible oil27.58±12.1927.00~28.1647.7898.6762.33
    盐 Salt4.45±1.814.36~4.537.3317.0810.06
    酱油 Soy sauce4.56±2.704.43~4.699.5825.8310.31
    醋 Vinegar1.96±1.711.88~2.045.4216.674.43
    糖 Sugar3.47±2.773.34~3.608.3329.177.84
    其他调味品 Other condiments2.71±3.892.52~2.897.4252.196.12

    表 3  (续)

    Table 3.  (continued)

    下载: 导出CSV
    食物类别 Category城市中心区 Urban城郊接合区 Suburban远郊地区 RuralFF valuePP value
    x¯±sP95x¯±sP95x¯±sP95
    谷类 Cereal245.27±104.43429.21281.13±102.25475.15265.97±92.04437.8711.46<0.001
    焙烤类 Bakery30.16±24.8780.1222.65±23.2567.0017.42±19.2359.2135.72<0.001
    豆类 Beans73.45±59.69165.7558.50±52.96150.7945.44±53.56146.9155.98<0.001
    坚果籽类 Nuts and seeds6.86±8.3823.159.05±13.7329.755.79±7.3423.168.89<0.001
    肉类 Meats79.37±48.91178.6382.74±49.13174.5050.04±32.82111.3363.35<0.001
    水产类 Aquatic products65.76±44.78138.1671.24±55.12182.0344.46±36.43114.7244.78<0.001
    蛋类 Eggs38.34±16.6666.6742.44±18.1970.3631.77±16.5664.5527.32<0.001
    乳类 Dairy122.37±84.26266.7689.38±77.29237.4460.72±69.13206.81103.39<0.001
    蔬菜类 Vegetables216.61±111.72393.94198.41±88.60380.79138.50±73.51261.6574.62<0.001
    食用菌类 Mushrooms14.61±12.4337.7513.93±11.1035.256.72±7.0418.1083.81<0.001
    水果类 Fruits146.87±89.39328.92145.54±96.26364.0396.72±69.13231.7063.94<0.001
    饮料类 Drinks79.56±108.51314.5870.12±93.27252.7057.91±92.31263.548.18<0.001
    酒类 Alcohol37.83±128.01236.6932.62±178.58170.5771.64±192.17506.913.090.046
    茶叶类 Tea3.70±14.0312.003.51±7.1812.932.23±5.7710.252.290.102
    藻类 Algae3.59±5.0412.292.88±3.138.592.08±3.229.1824.75<0.001
    巧克力类 Chocolate1.74±3.717.621.93±3.4710.721.18±3.096.3610.13<0.001
    调味品 Condiment43.06±18.3273.7346.19±15.5772.7149.91±15.9877.6626.16<0.001
    合计 Total1 209.15±389.871 835.311 172.27±404.981 959.89948.50±362.241 559.9374.12<0.001

    表 4  上海市15岁及以上居民不同城乡区域的每日膳食摄入量

    Table 4.  Daily dietary intake of residents aged 15 and above in different urban and rural areas in Shanghai

    下载: 导出CSV
    食物类别 Category春 Spring夏 Summer秋 Autumn冬 WinterFF valuePP value
    x¯±sP95x¯±sP95x¯±sP95x¯±sP95
    谷类 Cereal256.58±159.04519.79248.79±137.64498.79285.05±146.24500.00241.17±122.95483.2918.91<0.001
    焙烤类 Bakery28.16±39.41104.3225.41±31.4187.0631.01±38.21106.5826.69±34.4191.227.40<0.001
    豆类 Beans74.40±112.64267.5867.90±80.10228.3073.05±71.24210.0765.07±73.57220.815.110.002
    坚果籽类Nuts and seeds7.83±20.4133.004.92±9.4921.766.66±12.1927.628.27±14.1535.7317.52<0.001
    肉类 Meats75.07±67.39196.1472.86±63.07207.2180.34±66.39203.4377.02±63.03185.213.150.024
    水产类Aquatic products61.97±72.17178.5165.24±58.52179.9069.18±66.96165.6359.48±46.26150.133.000.029
    蛋类 Eggs40.50±29.5280.5640.57±25.7083.2038.20±25.3577.1734.43±21.3265.7422.63<0.001
    乳类 Dairy117.22±121.81340.00117.19±120.34320.76115.72±99.58292.95100.91±111.79300.004.290.005
    蔬菜类 Vegetables225.52±187.47549.43199.55±137.19442.89206.59±157.18461.65194.10±117.35423.005.890.001
    食用菌类 Mushrooms15.34±23.3645.8712.25±15.7942.8715.17±18.0757.1612.99±15.4138.588.57<0.001
    水果类 Fruits133.65±149.01396.16174.33±146.62462.15139.84±106.94351.76116.97±109.28304.5238.57<0.001
    饮料类 Drinks82.52±164.25350.0095.46±156.82400.0075.75±137.34350.0546.94±89.58228.3828.63<0.001

    表 5  上海市15岁及以上居民不同季节的每日膳食摄入量

    Table 5.  Daily dietary intake of residents aged 15 and above in different seasons in Shanghai

    下载: 导出CSV
    食物类别 Category春 Spring夏 Summer秋 Autumn冬 WinterFF valuePP value
    x¯±sP95x¯±sP95x¯±sP95x¯±sP95
    酒类 Alcohol60.44±282.43398.6326.60±87.96199.3232.68±93.79249.1446.10±304249.1413.53<0.001
    茶叶类 Tea3.52±16.2315.002.54±8.0110.005.64±47.5115.002.50±9.2410.002.800.039
    藻类 Algae3.81±10.0114.953.32±7.0814.293.76±5.8614.622.96±6.3214.553.290.020
    巧克力类 Chocolate2.54±8.9814.291.18±3.257.151.36±4.097.151.58±4.148.5717.71<0.001
    调味品 Condiment46.59±24.4587.4845.69±20.6683.4145.73±23.3486.3142.30±22.1675.362.460.061
    合计 Total1 232.47±616.272 366.781 166.80±475.021 980.811 241.15±456.062 009.371 088.83±469.831 871.6115.96<0.001

    表 5  (续)

    Table 5.  (continued)

    下载: 导出CSV
    食物类别 Category男 Male女 FemaleFF valuePP value
    x¯±sP95x¯±sP95
    谷类 Cereal287.52±107.17465.65215.28±85.28382.88190.49<0.001
    焙烤类 Bakery26.82±25.8480.1228.69±22.9677.051.290.257
    豆类 Beans68.80±57.81160.7867.80±60.15165.751.450.228
    坚果籽类 Nuts and seeds6.28±7.9921.767.81±10.2428.211.520.218
    肉类 Meats87.50±52.66181.3264.89±40.19135.1770.93<0.001
    水产类 Aquatic products64.64±45.12137.9863.43±46.89150.083.970.046
    蛋类 Eggs37.94±17.4566.6738.33±16.6467.860.230.633
    乳类 Dairy94.75±79.99244.94128.20±85.64264.2928.77<0.001
    蔬菜类 Vegetables207.76±109.86376.91202.83±106.12393.944.780.029
    食用菌类 Mushrooms12.65±10.5332.1214.64±13.3438.771.570.210
    水果类 Fruits125.96±85.87267.04156.80±90.89339.0719.03<0.001
    饮料类 Drinks84.44±118.69364.1466.86±87.78267.989.920.002
    酒类 Alcohol74.76±193.37428.535.48±32.149.06113.64<0.001
    茶叶类 Tea5.41±17.0214.501.51±3.826.1847.29<0.001
    藻类 Algae3.45±4.8011.063.19±4.5511.221.260.262
    巧克力类 Chocolate1.25±3.166.262.18±3.998.3215.88<0.001
    调味品 Condiment44.09±18.8075.9344.41±16.8472.820.030.854
    合计 Total1 234.03±396.571 935.601 112.32±388.601 771.2478.59<0.001

    表 6  上海市15岁及以上居民不同性别组的每日膳食摄入量

    Table 6.  Daily dietary intake of residents aged 15 and above in different gender groups in Shanghai

    下载: 导出CSV
    食物类别 Category15~44岁 15-44 years45~59岁 45-59 years≥60岁 60 years and aboveFF valuePP value
    x¯±sP95x¯±sP95x¯±sP95
    谷类 Cereal253.23±107.26458.62254.80±103.37440.00244.97±88.91412.501.130.324
    焙烤类 Bakery30.96±25.0881.1923.10±23.6867.1023.06±21.4663.1717.37<0.001
    豆类 Beans69.60±58.98152.4866.69±54.18161.1466.11±65.66204.382.650.071
    坚果籽类 Nuts and seeds7.00±9.3721.766.97±8.6526.837.24±9.3526.640.100.903
    肉类 Meats85.47±50.66179.6469.18±44.07151.5454.64±35.29128.0066.01<0.001
    水产类 Aquatic products66.98±44.91151.0863.72±43.28135.2453.74±52.20141.0612.90<0.001
    蛋类 Eggs37.70±16.5366.6738.66±17.5167.9238.89±18.2069.890.090.917
    乳类 Dairy122.10±83.41264.2993.65±79.50248.1097.56±89.26240.1517.52<0.001
    蔬菜类 Vegetables200.11±98.69368.43211.26±102.62405.26215.50±142.95411.981.910.148

    表 7  上海市15岁及以上居民不同年龄组的每日膳食摄入量

    Table 7.  Daily dietary intake of residents aged 15 and above in different age groups in Shanghai

    下载: 导出CSV
    食物类别 Category15~44岁 15-44 years45~59岁 45-59 years≥60岁 60 years and aboveFF valuePP value
    x¯±sP95x¯±sP95x¯±sP95
    食用菌类 Mushrooms14.30±11.9337.7513.22±11.9732.1211.76±12.2532.106.680.001
    水果类 Fruits148.31±92.95335.75134.06±84.52307.54124.80±81.98280.3816.51<0.001
    饮料类 Drinks107.39±119.33402.0338.26±62.00131.2318.32±37.2895.19199.30<0.001
    酒类 Alcohol24.64±104.43146.9371.57±169.10436.0053.35±207.42428.535.450.004
    茶叶类 Tea2.70±6.2710.005.91±22.6714.822.72±5.7612.008.69<0.001
    藻类 Algae3.50±4.4410.683.40±5.0513.092.52±4.869.056.940.001
    巧克力类 Chocolate2.35±4.248.930.84±2.193.710.67±2.063.5750.40<0.001
    调味品 Condiment42.30±17.9670.9545.99±16.8575.2948.72±18.0180.5613.20<0.001
    合计 Total1 218.64±395.421 866.801 141.27±378.841 796.851 064.54±406.661 722.4620.28<0.001

    表 7  (续)

    Table 7.  (continued)

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  • 通讯作者: 刘弘, liuhong@scdc.sh.cn
  • 收稿日期: 2022-03-27
  • 网络出版日期: 2022-05-20
通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
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