牛计伟,黄素丽,李晓恒,等.2022年珠三角4个城市PM2.5污染中金属元素吸入途径的健康风险评估[J].上海预防医学,2024,36(4):393-398.. doi: 10.19428/j.cnki.sjpm.2024.23509
引用本文: 牛计伟,黄素丽,李晓恒,等.2022年珠三角4个城市PM2.5污染中金属元素吸入途径的健康风险评估[J].上海预防医学,2024,36(4):393-398.. doi: 10.19428/j.cnki.sjpm.2024.23509
NIU Jiwei,HUANG Suli,LI Xiaoheng,et al.Health risk assessment of inhalation exposure to metallic elements in PM2.5 in four cities of the Pearl River Delta in 2022[J].Shanghai Journal of Preventive Medicine,2024,36(04):393-398.. doi: 10.19428/j.cnki.sjpm.2024.23509
Citation: NIU Jiwei,HUANG Suli,LI Xiaoheng,et al.Health risk assessment of inhalation exposure to metallic elements in PM2.5 in four cities of the Pearl River Delta in 2022[J].Shanghai Journal of Preventive Medicine,2024,36(04):393-398.. doi: 10.19428/j.cnki.sjpm.2024.23509

2022年珠三角4个城市PM2.5 污染中金属元素吸入途径的健康风险评估

Health risk assessment of inhalation exposure to metallic elements in PM2.5 in four cities of the Pearl River Delta in 2022

  • 摘要:
    目的 了解新型冠状病毒感染疫情下广东省珠三角城市空气中细颗粒物(PM2.5)污染特征及PM2.5中金属元素吸入途径的健康风险。
    方法 2022年在广州、深圳、佛山及珠海市等4个市10个区设置10个PM2.5监测点,每月连续7 d采集空气样品进行PM2.5质量浓度及PM2.5中12种金属元素成分分析。通过经典“四步法”对空气中PM2.5金属元素与健康影响的致癌风险(CR)、慢性非致癌风险的评估。在CR评估中结合金属元素年龄敏感特征,引入年龄敏感因子,分析空气污染对人群健康影响。
    结果 共采集样品818份,珠三角4个城市PM2.5年均浓度(最小值~最大值,标准差)为30.17(1.00~166.00,21.06) μg·m-3,低于GB 3095—2012《环境空气质量标准》二级浓度限值。4个城市PM2.5浓度差异有统计学意义(P<0.05):临海的珠海、深圳市浓度低于广州和佛山市。4个城市月均浓度,最低是7月13.70(4.00~34.00,5.93) μg·m-3,最高是1月57.73(14.00~146.00,27.96) μg·m-3。日平均浓度超过二级浓度限值的共29 d,主要分布在1、11月。PM2.5中元素的年均质量浓度铝(Al)>锰(Mn)>铅(Pb)>砷(As)>镍(Ni)>铬(Cr)>硒(Se)>锑(Sb)>镉(Cd)>铊(Tl)>铍(Be)>汞(Hg)。AS、Mn具有人群慢性非致癌风险,Cr、As、Cd、Be、Ni存在人群CR。
    结论 珠三角4个城市PM2.5污染水平低且有差异性,临海城市低于非临海城市,全年呈先降后升的特征。4个城市PM2.5中金属元素除Be、Ni外质量浓度排序基本相同。PM2.5中As、Mn显示有一定程度的慢性非致癌风险,As、Cr、Cd、Ni、Be存在一定程度的CR。4个城市均须采取有效干预措施,继续加强空气中Cr、As、Cd、Mn的污染管控和健康防护,控制空气污染导致的健康负担。

     

    Abstract:
    Objective To understand the characteristics of PM2.5 pollution in the air of Pearl River Delta city in Guangdong Province under the COVID-19 epidemic and the health risks of inhaling elements in PM2.5.
    Methods In 2022, 10 PM2.5 monitoring points were set up in 10 districts in Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Foshan and Zhuhai, and air samples were collected for 7 consecutive days every month to analyze the concentration of PM2.5 and the 12 elements in PM2.5. The classic "four-step" method was used to evaluate the carcinogenic risk and chronic non-carcinogenic risk of the elements in air PM2.5 on health. The age-sensitive characteristics of metal elements were combined in the carcinogenic risk assessment, and age-sensitive factors were introduced to analyze the impact of air pollution on population health.
    Results A total of 818 samples were collected. and the average annual PM2.5 concentration in the four cities of the Pearl River Delta was 30.17 (1.00-166.00, s=21.06) μg·m-3, which was lower than the concentration limit of the secondary standard of the Ambient Air Quality Standard (GB 3095-2012). The difference of PM2.5 concentration in the four cities was statistically significant. The PM2.5 concentrations in Zhuhai and Shenzhen, which were located near the sea, were lower than those in Guangzhou and Foshan. The monthly mean concentration of PM2.5 in the four cities was the lowest at 13.70 (4.00-34.00, s=5.93) μg·m-3 in July and the highest at 57.73 (14.00-146.00, s=27.96) μg·m-3 in January, showing a low concentration from May to October and a high concentration from November to April of the following year. The average daily PM2.5 concentration exceeded the secondary standard for 29 days, mainly distributed in January and November. The average annual mass concentration of elements in PM2.5 in the four cities was Al>Mn>Pb>As>Ni>Cr>Se>Sb>Cd>Tl>Be>Hg. AS and Mn have chronic non-carcinogenic risk in population, while Cr, AS, Cd, Be and Ni have carcinogenic risk in population.
    Conclusion The PM2.5 pollution levels of the four cities in the Pearl River Delta are low and variable. Coastal cities are lower than non-coastal cities, which shows the characteristics of first decreasing and then increasing throughout the year. The order of mass concentration of metal elements of PM2.5 in four cities is basically the same except Be and Ni. As and Mn in PM2.5 show a certain degree of chronic non-carcinogenic risk, and As, Cr, Cd, Ni and Be have a certain degree of carcinogenic risk. The four cities need to take effective intervention measures to continue to strengthen the pollution control and health protection of Cr, As, Cd and Mn in the air, and control the health burden caused by air pollution.

     

/

返回文章
返回